The World Economic Forum calls it the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Top consulting firms like McKinsey, Boston Consulting Group (BCG), and PriceWaterhouseCooper (PWC) refer to its manufacturing component as Industry 4.0. The Trends editors, among others, long ago designated it as the Deployment Phase of the Fifth Techno-Economic Revolution. Regardless of the name used, mankind will look back on this transition as the most important economic development so far in human history. What is it? Where does it stand? What are its implications for workers, investors, and society? We’ll explain.