How did we get on the trajectory to demographic oblivion? An intellectual elite assumed that central planners could make better decisions than the great mass of people operating in their own self-interest. In much the same way the “population control movement” is collapsing, communism collapsed everywhere except North Korea, Cuba, and a few other failed states. Similarly, the more user-friendly socialism of Western Europe is slowly, but surely, being dismantled. Just as some outdated thinkers still fret about over-population, a growing chorus of American “neo-socialists” wants to turn back the clock to the days of confiscatory taxation, excessive regulation, and proactive income redistribution. What’s really going on? What are the implications? How should we think about this resurgent paradigm? We’ll provide the answers.